Mobile robot navigation is a very interesting topic in robotics. The topic itself can comprise many other subtopic, including planning, robot localization, tracking, control system analysis, etc.
Here are some terms used with mobile robot navigation:
Types of navigation: There are basically four types of navigation, namely, the trajectory tracking, path tracking, point to point motion and goal oriented.
Types of robot modeling and control system: This is divided to two type, the kinematic modeling and control and dynamic modeling and control.
Robot localization: This itself is a very interesting topic, but basically, there are two types of localization, the dead reckoning and absolute navigation
Holonomy: Holonomy in this sense is divided into holonomic and nonholonomic mobile robot. This will also determine the type of controller used to properly control the mobile robot.